Fathers and mothers (N = 75 dual-earner couples) of preschool-aged children completed questionnaires that examined work and family variables as related to paternal involvement in three areas: engagement (i.e., directly interacting with the child), responsibility (i.e., scheduling activities and being accountable for the child's well-being), and accessibility (i.e., being available to the child but not in direct interaction). Fathers' reports of responsibility and accessibility were significantly predicted by structural variables and beliefs; however, fathers' reports of engagement were not predicted by work and family variables. Mothers' reports of work and family variables did not predict their reports of father involvement. These findings suggest that for fathers of young children, parental involvement appears mainly self-determined.
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