Using data from the Dutch cohort study Generation R (N = 1,523), we investigate to what extent the association between father involvement and toddler's behavioral and emotional problems varies by child's gender. This research addresses important limitations in prior work by (a) differentiating between different father involvement tasks, (b) incorporating a diverse set of behavioral and emotional problems, and (c) using a prospective design to answer our research question. Our findings reveal that the negative association between father involvement and toddler's behavioral and emotional problems only holds for boys, and mainly for behavioral problems. The results showed that it is fathers' relatively stronger involvement in tasks labeled as "responsibility" which contributed to toddlers' lower levels of behavioral problems. (Author abstract)
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