In the context of the gender revolution, contemporary norms of fatherhood emphasize men's involvement with their children in addition to their traditional role as financial provider. Improved father involvement includes several key items for "new fathers." These include making efforts to be equal partners in parenting, nurturing children, and performing both interactive and physical caregiving. However, the roles of provider and involved father may conflict: Whereas the "new father" role requires spending time with children, the "provider" role requires commitment to spending time on the job. Using two waves of the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,139), this study examines the relationship between employment and father involvement and whether fathering attitudes moderate that relationship. There are limited strong results to suggest that work hours relate to father involvement. Despite generally long work hours, a subgroup of "new fathers" appear better able to preserve time with children, likely by cutting back on, or incorporating their children into, their leisure time. (Author abstract modified)
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