Masculinity as a Moderator of Discrimination and Parenting on Depressive Symptoms and Drinking Behaviors Among Nonresident African-American Fathers.

Journal Name
Psychology of Men and Masculinity (Online First Publication)
Page Count
Year Published
Author (Individual)
Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard.
Antonakos, Cathy L.
Tsuchiya, Kazumi.
Assari, Shervin.
De Loney, E. Hill.
Resource Type
Journal Article
Resource Format
Resource Language
This study examined relationships between masculinity ideologies, perceived discrimination, and parenting behaviors on depressive symptoms and drinking behavior among 332 nonresident African-American fathers. Masculinity ideologies also were examined as moderators of perceived discrimination and parenting behaviors on outcomes. Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that culturally based traditional masculinity was associated with less depressive symptoms. Perceived discrimination was linked to more depressive symptoms; however, positive relationships with sons were associated with less depressive symptoms and drinking behavior among fathers. Parenting behaviors explained additional variance in depressive symptoms and drinking behavior after controlling for masculinity ideologies, perceived discrimination, and sociodemographics. More cooperative parenting behaviors between fathers and mothers were associated with more depressive symptoms among fathers with high interconnected masculinity beliefs. Strategies for incorporating masculinity ideologies and the fatherhood role into interventions, clinical practice, and policies to improve the mental health and health behaviors of nonresident African-American fathers are discussed. (Author abstract)

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