Child: Care, Health and Development
Background: Many rural children in China have been experiencing life without fathers since the 1990s, when their fathers left the rural areas for the urban areas to find a job that would allow them to continue to support their family. However, to date, knowledge and understanding of the effects of the absence of fathers and timing of separation on the mental health of adolescents are limited. Methods: A total of 2233 students, ranging in age from 11 to 23 years, from five provinces of China, including 1024 adolescents who experienced the absence of their fathers, were recruited for this study. The data were collected using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, which were self-report questionnaires. Results: Findings from a structured questionnaire showed that the subjects who experienced life without fathers have increased state-anxiety ( t= -5.80, P
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