Involved fathering is a defining characteristic of our species, with different features having evolved at different times and in different contexts.4,5 Yet paternal behaviors and roles also vary across and within sociocultural contexts, in turn yielding an array of influences on children.3,6,7 Fathers may provide protection, material resources (e.g., salary, livestock, inheritance), direct care (e.g., changing diapers, physical play), indirect care (such as arranging marriages in some cultures) and may serve as social models. Impacts on children may be measured in terms of fertility (number of children), survival and health, educational attainment, socioemotional development (e.g., emotional capacity, language development) and reproductive parameters (e.g., children’s partnerships and fertility), among other outcomes. [Author Abstract]
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