Journal of Family Issues
Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses assessed whether fathers' parenting practices during early childhood showed long-term links with low-income children's cognitive skills through middle childhood. Results found that fathers' warm and stimulating parenting predicted enhanced reading and math skills for children in middle childhood, whereas fathers' restrictive discipline predicted lower reading and math skills. These links were independent of mothers' parenting and emerged controlling for a range of child and family characteristics. Associations between fathers' parenting and children's cognitive skills were similar across both resident and nonresident fathers and across African American and Hispanic families. (Author abstract)
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